The Teradata Python Module is a freely available, open source, library for the Python programming language, whose aim is to make it easy to script powerful interactions with Teradata Database. It adopts the philosophy of udaSQL, providing a DevOps focused SQL Execution Engine that allows developers to focus on their SQL and procedural logic without worrying about Operational requirements such as external configuration, query banding, and logging.
 
The Teradata Python Module is released under an MIT license. The source is available on GitHub and the package is available for download and install from PyPI.

Table of Contents

1.0 Getting Started

1.1 Installing the Teradata Python Module

1.2 Connectivity Options

1.3 Hello World Example

2.0 DevOps Features

2.1 External Configuration

2.2 Logging

2.3 Checkpoints

2.4 Query Banding

3.0 Database Interactions

3.1 Cursors

3.2 Parameterized SQL

3.3 Stored Procedures

3.4 Transactions

3.5 Data Types

3.6 Unicode

3.7 Ignoring Errors

3.8 Password Protection

3.9 Query Timeouts

3.10 External SQL Scripts

4.0 Reference

4.1 UdaExec Parameters

4.2 Connect Parameters

4.3 Execute Parameters

1.0  Getting Started

The following sections run through installation, connectivity options, and a simple Hello World example.

1.1 Installing the Teradata Python Module

The Teradata Python Module has been certified to work with Python 3.4+ / 2.7+, Windows/Linux/Mac, 32/64 bit.

The easiest way to install the “teradata” python module is using pip.

pip install teradata

If you don’t have pip installed, you can download the package from PyPI, unzip the folder, then double click the setup.py file or run

setup.py install

1.2 Connectivity Options

The Teradata Python Module can use either the REST API for Teradata Database or Teradata ODBC to connect to Teradata.  If using the REST API, make sure Teradata REST Services (tdrestd) is deployed and the target Teradata system is registered with the Service.  If using ODBC, make sure the Teradata ODBC driver is installed on the same machine as where the Teradata Python Module will be executed.

The Teradata Python Module includes two sub-modules that implement the Python Database API Specification v2.0, one using REST (teradata.tdrest) and one using ODBC (teradata.tdodbc).  Though these modules can be accessed directly, its recommended to use the base UdaExec module instead as it provides all the extra DevOps enabled features.

1.3 Hello World Example

In this example, we will connect to a Teradata Database and run a simple query to fetch the Query Band information for the session that we create.  

Example 1 - HelloWorld.py

import teradata

udaExec = teradata.UdaExec (appName="HelloWorld", version="1.0",
        logConsole=False)

session = udaExec.connect(method="odbc", system="tdprod",
        username="xxx", password="xxx");

for row in session.execute("SELECT GetQueryBand()"):
    print(row)

Let’s break the example down line by line.   The first line, “import teradata”, imports the Teradata Python Module for use in the script.   

The second line initializes the “UdaExec” framework that provides DevOps support features such as configuration and logging.  We tell UdaExec the name and version of our application during initialization so that we can get feedback about our application in DBQL and Teradata Viewpoint as this information is included in the QueryBand of all Database sessions created by our script.  We also tell UdaExec not to log to the console (e.g. logConsole=False) so that our print statement is easier to read.

The third line creates a connection to a Teradata system named “tdprod” using ODBC as the connection method.   The last line executes the “SELECT GetQueryBand()” SQL statement and iterates over the results, printing each row returned.  Since “SELECT GetQueryBand()” statement only returns one row, only one row is printed.

Let’s go ahead and run the script by executing “python HelloWorld.py”.   Below is the result:

Row 1: ['=S> ApplicationName=HelloWorld;Version=1.0;JobID=1;ClientUser=example;Production=false;
udaAppLogFile=/home/example/PyTd/Example1/logs/HelloWorld.20150608153012-1.log;gitRevision=f4cc453;
gitDirty=False;UtilityName=PyTd;UtilityVersion=15.10.00.00;']

From the output, we see that one row was returned with a single string column.  We also see quite a bit of information was added to the QueryBand of the session we created.  We can see the application name and version we specified when initializing UdaExec as well as the name of a log file.   If we look at this location on the file system we can see the log file that was generated:

2015-06-24 16:30:47,875 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Initializing UdaExec...
2015-06-24 16:30:47,875 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Reading config files: ['/etc/udaexec.ini: Not Found', '/home/example/udaexec.ini: Not Found', '/home/example/PyTd/Example1/udaexec.ini: Not Found']
2015-06-24 16:30:47,875 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - No previous run number found as /home/example/PyTd/Example1/.runNumber does not exist. Initializing run number to 1
2015-06-24 16:30:47,875 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Cleaning up log files older than 90 days.
2015-06-24 16:30:47,875 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Removed 0 log files.
2015-06-24 16:30:47,883 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Checkpoint file not found: /home/example/PyTd/Example1/HelloWorld.checkpoint
2015-06-24 16:30:47,883 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - No previous checkpoint found, executing from beginning...
2015-06-24 16:30:47,884 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Execution Details:
/********************************************************************************
 * Application Name: HelloWorld
 *          Version: 1.0
 *       Run Number: 20150624163047-1
 *             Host: sdlc4157
 *         Platform: Linux-2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64-x86_64-with-centos-6.5-Final
 *          OS User: example
 *   Python Version: 3.4.3
 *  Python Compiler: GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-11)
 *     Python Build: ('default', 'Apr  7 2015 16:47:35')
 *  UdaExec Version: 15.10.00.00
 *     Program Name: HelloWorld.py
 *      Working Dir: /home/example/PyTd/Example1
 *      Git Version: git version 1.7.1
 *     Git Revision: f4cc453
 *        Git Dirty: True [ M Example1/HelloWorld.py,?? Example2/]
 *          Log Dir: /home/example/PyTd/Example1/logs
 *         Log File: /home/example/PyTd/Example1/logs/HelloWorld.20150624163047-1.log
 *     Config Files: ['/etc/udaexec.ini: Not Found', '/home/example/udaexec.ini: Not Found', '/home/example/PyTd/Example1/udaexec.ini: Not Found']
 *      Query Bands: ApplicationName=HelloWorld;Version=1.0;JobID=20150624163047-1;ClientUser=example;Production=false;udaAppLogFile=/home/example/PyTd/Example1/logs/HelloWorld.20150624163047-1.log;gitRevision=f4cc453;gitDirty=True;UtilityName=PyTd;UtilityVersion=15.10.00.00
********************************************************************************/
2015-06-24 16:30:47,884 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Creating connection: {'password': 'XXXXXX', 'method': 'odbc', 'username': 'xxx', 'system': 'tdprod'}
2015-06-24 16:30:47,884 - teradata.tdodbc - INFO - Loading ODBC Library: libodbc.so
2015-06-24 16:30:48,131 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Connection successful. Duration: 0.246 seconds. Details: {'password': 'XXXXXX', 'method': 'odbc', 'username': 'xxx', 'system': 'tdprod'}
2015-06-24 16:30:48,132 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Query Successful. Duration: 0.001 seconds, Rows: 1, Query: SELECT GetQueryBand()
2015-06-24 16:30:48,133 - teradata.tdodbc - WARNING - 1 open connections found on exit, attempting to close...
2015-06-24 16:30:48,185 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - UdaExec exiting.

In the logs, you can see connection information and all the SQL statements submitted along with their durations.  If any errors had occurred, those would have been logged too. 

The second to last log entry is a WARNING message that an open connection was not explicitly closed.  Explicitly closing resources when done is always a good idea.   In the next sections, we show how this can be done automatically using the “with” statement. 

2.0 DevOps Features

The following sections discuss the DevOps oriented features provided by the Teradata Python Module.  These features help simplify development and provide the feedback developers need once their applications are put into QA and production.

2.1 External Configuration

In the first “Hello World” example, we depended on no external configuration information for our script to run.  What if we now wanted to run our HelloWorld.py script against a different database system?  We would need to modify the source of our script, which is somewhat inconvenient and error prone.   Luckily the UdaExec framework makes it easy to maintain configuration information outside of our source code.

Example 2 – PrintTableRows.py

import teradata

udaExec = teradata.UdaExec ()

with udaExec.connect("${dataSourceName}") as session: 
    for row in session.execute("SELECT * FROM ${table}"):
        print(row)

In this example, we remove all the hard coded configuration data and instead load our configuration parameters from external configuration files. We also call connect using the “with” statement so that the connection is closed after use even when exceptions are raised.

You may be wondering what ${dataSourceName} means above.  Well, a dollar sign followed by   optional curly braces means replace ${whatever} with the value of the external configuration variable named “whatever”.   In this example, we make a connection to a data source whose name and configuration is defined outside of our script.  We then perform a SELECT on a table whose name is also configured outside of our script. 

UdaExec allows any SQL statement to make reference to an external configuration parameter using the dollar sign/curly brace syntax.  When actually wanting to include a “$” literal in a SQL statement that isn’t a parameter substitution, you must escape the dollar sign with another dollar sign (e.g. “$$”).

Here is our external configuration file that we name “udaexec.ini” and place in the same directory as our python script.

Example 2 - udaexec.ini

# Application Configuration
[CONFIG]
appName=PrintTableRows
version=2
logConsole=False
dataSourceName=TDPROD
table=DBC.DBCInfo 

# Default Data Source Configuration
[DEFAULT]
method=odbc
charset=UTF8

# Data Source Definition
[TDPROD]
system=tdprod
username=xxx
password=xxx

An external configuration file should contain one section named “CONFIG” that contains application configuration name/value pairs, a section named “DEFAULT” that contains default data source name/value pairs, and one or more user defined sections that contain data source name/value pairs.

In this example, we are connecting to ${dataSourceName}, which resolves to “TDPROD” as dataSourceName is a property in the CONFIG section.    The TDPROD data source is defined in our configuration file and provides the name of the system we are connecting to as well as the username and password.  It also inherits the properties in the DEFAULT section, which in this case, defines that we will use ODBC as the connection method and “UTF8” as the session character set.

You’ll notice in this example we didn’t specify the “appName” and “version” when initializing UdaExec.  If you look at the method signature for UdaExec, you’ll see that the default values for appName and version are “${appName}” and “${version}”.   When not specified as method arguments, these values are looked up in the external configuration.  This is true for almost all configuration parameters that can be passed to the UdaExec constructor so that any setting can be set or changed without changing your code. 

If we run the example script above using “python PrintTableRows.py”, we get the following output:

Row 1: ['LANGUAGE SUPPORT MODE', 'Standard']
Row 2: ['RELEASE', '15.00.01.02']
Row 3: ['VERSION', '15.00.01.02']

Looking at the generated log file, we see the following log entry:

2015-06-08 16:54:55,728 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Reading config files: ['/etc/udaexec.ini: Not Found', 
'/home/example/udaexec.ini: Not Found', '/home/example/PyTd/Example2/udaexec.ini: Found']

As you can see, UdaExec is attempting to load external configuration from multiple files.   By default, UdaExec looks for a system specific configuration file, a user specific configuration file, and an application specific configuration file.   The location of these files can be specified as arguments to the UdaExec constructor.  Below are the argument names along with their default values.

Table 1 – Config File Locations

Name

Description

Default Value

systemConfigFile

The system wide configuration file(s).  Can be a single value or a list.  

"/etc/udaexec.ini"

userConfigFile

The user specific configuration file(s).  Can be a single value or a list.  

"~/udaexec.ini" or "%HOMEPATH%/udaexec.ini"

appConfigFile

The application specific configuration file (s).  Can be a single value or a list. 

"udaexec.ini"

Configuration data is loaded in the order shown above, from least specific to most specific, with later configuration files overriding the values specified by earlier configuration files when conflicts occur.

If we had wanted to name our configuration file in this example “PrintTableRows.ini” instead of “udaexec.ini”, then we could’ve specified that when creating the UdaExec object.   E.g.

udaExec = teradata.UdaExec (appConfigFile="PrintTableRows.ini")

If we wanted to have multiple application configuration files, then we could’ve specified a list of file names instead.  E.g.

udaExec = teradata.UdaExec (appConfigFile=["PrintTableRows.ini", "PrintTableRows2.ini"])

If you find that even that isn’t flexible enough, you can always override the external configuration file list used by UdaExec by passing it in the “configFiles” argument.   When the “configFiles” list is specified,  systemConfigFile, userConfigFile, and appConfigFile values are ignored.

In addition to using external configuration files, application configuration options can also be specified via the command line.  If we wanted to change the table name we select from in the example above, we can specify the table value on the command line e.g. “python PrintTableRows.py --table=ExampleTable” which would instead print the rows of a table named “ExampleTable”.  Configuration options specified on the command line override those in external configuration files.   UdaExec has a parameter named “parseCmdLineArgs” that is True by default.   You can set this value to False to prevent command line arguments from being included as part of the UdaExec configuration.

Sometimes it may be necessary to get or set UdaExec application configuration parameters in the code directly.  You can do this by using the “config” dictionary-like object on the UdaExec instance.  E.g.

udaExec = teradata.UdaExec ()
print(udaExec.config["table"])
udaExec.config["table"] = "ExampleTable" 

As you can see, using external configuration makes it easy to write scripts that are reasonably generic and that can execute in a variety of environments. The same script can be executed against a Dev, Test, and Prod environment with no changes, making it easier to adopt and automate a DevOps workflow.

2.2 Logging

The UdaExec object automatically enables logging when it is initialized.  Logging is implemented using Python’s standard logging module.  If you create a logger in your script, your custom log messages will also be logged along with the UdaExec log messages.

By default, each execution of a script that creates the UdaExec object gets its own unique log file.   This has the potential to generate quite a few files.   For this reason, UdaExec also automatically removes log files that are older than a configurable number of days.

Below is a list of the different logging options and their default values.  Logging options can be specified in the UdaExec constructor, in the application section of external configuration files, or on the command line.

Table 2 – Logging Options

Name

Description

Default Value

configureLogging

 Flags if UdaExec will configure logging.  

True

logDir

The directory that contains log files.

"logs"

logFile

The log file name. 

"${appName}.${runNumber}.log"

logLevel

The level that determines what log messages are logged (i.e. CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG, TRACE)

"INFO"

logConsole

Flags if logs should be written to stdout in addition to the log file.

True

logRetention

The number of days to retain log files.  Files in the log directory older than the specified number of days are deleted.

90

If the logging features of UdaExec don’t meet the requirements of your application, then you can configure UdaExec not to configure logging and instead configure it yourself.

Log messages generated at INFO level contain all the status of all submitted SQL statements and their durations.   If there are problems during script execution, the log files provide the insight needed to diagnose any issues.  If more information is needed, the log level can be increased to "DEBUG" or "TRACE".

2.3 Checkpoints

When an error occurs during script execution, exceptions get raised that typically cause the script to exit.   Let’s suppose you have a script that performs 4 tasks but it is only able to complete 2 of them before an unrecoverable exception is raised.  In some cases, it would be nice to be able to re-run the script when the error condition is resolved and have it automatically resume execution of the 2 remaining tasks.   This is exactly the reason UdaExec includes support for checkpoints.

A checkpoint is simply a string that denotes some point during script execution.  When a checkpoint is reached, UdaExec saves the checkpoint string off to a file.  UdaExec checks for this file during initialization.  If it finds a previous checkpoint, it will ignore all execute statements until the checkpoint specified in the file is reached.

Example 3  - CheckpointExample.py

import teradata

udaExec = teradata.UdaExec()
with udaExec.connect("${dataSourceName}") as session:
    session.execute("-- Task 1")
    udaExec.checkpoint("Task 1 Complete")

    session.execute("-- Task 2")
    udaExec.checkpoint("Task 2 Complete")

    session.execute("-- Task 3")
    udaExec.checkpoint("Task 3 Complete")

    session.execute("-- Task 4")
    udaExec.checkpoint("Task 4 Complete")


# Script completed successfully, clear checkpoint
# so it executes from the beginning next time
udaExec.checkpoint()

In the example above, we are calling execute 4 different times and setting a checkpoint after each call. If we were to re-run the script after the 3rd execute failed, the first two calls to execute would be ignored.   Below are the related log entries when re-running our CheckpointExample.py script after the 3rd execute failed.

2015-06-25 14:15:29,017 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Initializing UdaExec...
2015-06-25 14:15:29,026 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Found checkpoint file: "/home/example/PyTd/Example3/CheckpointExample.checkpoint"
2015-06-25 14:15:29,027 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Resuming from checkpoint "Task 2 Complete".
2015-06-25 14:15:29,028 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Creating connection: {'method': 'odbc', 'system': 'tdprod', 'username': 'xxx', 'password': 'XXXXXX', 'dsn': 'TDPROD'}
2015-06-25 14:15:29,250 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Connection successful. Duration: 0.222 seconds. Details: {'method': 'odbc', 'system': 'tdprod', 'username': 'xxx', 'password': 'XXXXXX', 'dsn': 'TDPROD'}
2015-06-25 14:15:29,250 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Skipping query, haven't reached resume checkpoint yet.  Query:  -- Task 1
2015-06-25 14:15:29,250 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Skipping query, haven't reached resume checkpoint yet.  Query:  -- Task 2
2015-06-25 14:15:29,250 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Reached resume checkpoint: "Task 2 Complete".  Resuming execution...
2015-06-25 14:15:29,252 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Query Successful. Duration: 0.001 seconds, Rows: 0, Query: -- Task 3
2015-06-25 14:15:29,252 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Reached checkpoint: "Task 3 Complete"
2015-06-25 14:15:29,252 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Saving checkpoint "Task 3 Complete" to /home/example/PyTd/Example3/CheckpointExample.checkpoint.
2015-06-25 14:15:29,253 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Query Successful. Duration: 0.001 seconds, Rows: 0, Query: -- Task 4
2015-06-25 14:15:29,254 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Reached checkpoint: "Task 4 Complete"
2015-06-25 14:15:29,254 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Saving checkpoint "Task 4 Complete" to /home/example/PyTd/Example3/CheckpointExample.checkpoint.
2015-06-25 14:15:29,328 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Clearing checkpoint....
2015-06-25 14:15:29,329 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - Removing checkpoint file /home/example/PyTd/Example3/CheckpointExample.checkpoint.
2015-06-25 14:15:29,329 - teradata.udaexec - INFO - UdaExec exiting.

As you can see from the logs, all calls to execute are skipped until the “Task 2 Complete” checkpoint is reached.    At the end of our script we call “udaExec.checkpoint()” without a checkpoint string.  This call clears the checkpoint file so that the next time we run our script, it will execute from the beginning.

While skipping calls to execute help to resume after an error, there are situations where this alone will not always work.   If the results of a query are necessary for program execution, then the script may hit additional errors when being resumed.   For example, let’s assume our script now loads a configuration parameter from a table. 

udaExec.config["mysetting"] = session.execute("SELECT mysetting FROM 
	MyConfigTable").fetchone()[0]

A call to execute returns a Cursor into a result set, so we call fetchone()[0] to get the first column of the first row in the result set. If the execute call is skipped, then fetchone() will return None and the lookup of the first column will fail.  There are several ways we can workaround this problem.  The first way is to force execute to run regardless of checkpoints by specifying the parameter runAlways=True.  E.g.

udaExec.config["mysetting"] = session.execute("SELECT mysetting FROM 
	MyConfigTable", runAlways=True).fetchone()[0]

This is a good approach if we want to set “mysetting” even on resume.  If “mysetting” is not necessary for resume though, then another way to prevent errors is to check the UdaExec “skip” attribute.  E.g.

if not udaExec.skip:
    udaExec.config["mysetting"] = session.execute("SELECT mysetting FROM 
	MyConfigTable").fetchone()[0]

With this approach, we only access the “mysetting” column if execute will not be skipped. 

UdaExec saves checkpoints to a file named "${appName}.checkpoint" located in the same directory the script is executed by default.  The checkpoint file can be changed by specifying the “checkpointFile” parameter in the UdaExec constructor, in an external configuration file, or on the command line.   To disable file-based checkpoints, “checkpointFile” can be set to None in the UdaExec constructor or it can be set to an empty string in an external configuration file.

If it is desirable to load checkpoints from and save checkpoints to a place other than a local file (e.g. a database table), then a custom checkpoint manager implementation can be used to handle loading, saving, and clearing checkpoint details. Below is an example of a custom checkpoint manager that loads and saves checkpoints to a database table.

class MyCheckpointManager (teradata.UdaExecCheckpointManager):
    def __init__(self, session):
	self.session = session
    def loadCheckpoint(self):
        for row in self.session.execute("""SELECT * FROM ${checkPointTable} 
                                           WHERE appName = '${appName}'"""):
            return row.checkpointName
    def saveCheckpoint(self, checkpointName):
        self.session.execute("""UPDATE ${checkPointTable} SET checkpointName = ? 
                                WHERE appName = '${appName}' ELSE 
                                INSERT INTO ${checkPointTable} VALUES ('${appName}', ?)""", 
                             (checkpointName, checkpointName))
    def clearCheckpoint(self):
        self.session.execute("""DELETE FROM ${checkPointTable} 
                                WHERE appName = '${appName}'""", 
                             ignoreErrors=[3802])      

To use this custom checkpoint manager, you can disable the checkpointFile and call the setCheckpointManager method on UdaExec.  E.g.

udaexec = teradata.UdaExec(checkpointFile=None)
with udaexec.connect("${dsn}") as session:  
    udaexec.setCheckpointManager(MyCheckpointManager(session))
    # The rest of my program logic.

2.4 Query Banding

UdaExec automatically sets session Query Bands for any connections you create so that the runtime characteristics of your application can be monitored in DBQL and Teradata Viewpoint.    Reviewing application log files along with the associated log entries in DBQL are great ways to get feedback on the overall execution of your application.  The table below lists the name and descriptions of the Query Bands that are set.

Table 3 - Query Bands

Name

Description

ApplicationName

The name of your application

Version

The version of your application

JobID

The run number of this particular execution

ClientUser

The OS user name.

Production

True if a production App, else False

udaAppLogFile

Path of the generated log file

gitRevision

The GIT revision of the application.

gitDirty

True if files have been modified since last commit to GIT

UtilityName

The nickname of the Teradata Python Module -  PyTd

UtilityVersion

The version of the Teradata Python Module

Additional custom Query Bands can be set by passing a map (dict) as the queryBand argument to UdaExec.connect().

3.0 Database Interactions

UdaExec implements the Python Database API Specification v2.0 while adding additional convenience on top.  The only deviation from this specification is that UdaExec enables auto commit by default.  It is recommended to review the Python Database API Specification v2.0 first and then review the following sections for more details.

3.1 Cursors

Since only a single Cursor is needed most of the time, UdaExec creates an internal cursor for each call to connect() and allows execute, executemany, and callproc to be called directly on the connection object.  Calls to these methods on the Connection object simply invoke those same methods on the internal cursor.   The internal cursor is closed when the connection is closed.

Calls to execute, executemany, and callproc return the Cursor for convenience.  Cursors act as iterators, so the results of an execute call can easily be iterated over in a “for” loop.  Rows act like tuples or dictionaries, and even allow columns to be accessed by name similar to attributes on an object.   Below is an example.  All 3 print statements print the same thing for each row.

import teradata
udaExec = teradata.UdaExec()
with udaExec.connect("${dataSourceName}") as session:
for row in session.execute("""SELECT InfoKey AS name, InfoData as val 
           FROM DBC.DBCInfo"""):
        print(row[0] + ": " + row[1])
        print(row["name"] + ": " + row["val"])
        print(row.name + ": " + row.val)

There are situations where it may be necessary to use a separate cursor in addition to the one created by default.   A good example of this is when wanting to perform queries while iterating over the results of another query.   To accomplish this, two cursors must be used, one to iterate and one to invoke the additional queries.  Below is an example.

import teradata
udaExec = teradata.UdaExec()
with udaExec.connect("${dataSourceName}") as session:
    with session.cursor() as cursor:
    for row in cursor.execute("SELECT * from ${tableName}"):
            session.execute("DELETE FROM ${tableName} WHERE id = ?", (row.id, )):

Like connections, cursors should be closed when you're finished using them.   This is best accomplished using the “with” statement.

3.2 Parameterized SQL

You can pass parameters to SQL statements using the question mark notation.   The following example inserts a row into an employee table.

session.execute("""INSERT INTO employee (id, firstName, lastName, dob) 
                   VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)""", (1,"James", "Kirk", "2233-03-22"))

To insert multiple rows, executemany can be used.  To insert them using batch mode, pass in the parameter batch=True. E.g.

session.executemany("""INSERT INTO employee (id, firstName, lastName, dob) 
                       VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)""", 
                    ((1,"James", "Kirk", "2233-03-22"), 
                     (2,"Jean-Luc", "Picard", "2305-07-13")), 
                    batch=True)

Batch mode sends all the parameter sequences to the database in a single “batch” and is much faster than sending the parameter sequences individually.

3.3 Stored Procedures

Stored procedures can be invoked using the “callproc” method.    OUT parameters should be specified as teradata.OutParam instances.  INOUT parameters should be specified as teradata.InOutParam instances.   An optional name can be specified with output parameters that can be used to access the returned parameter by name.  Additionally, a data type name can be specified so that the output parameter is converted to the proper Python object.  E.g.

results = session.callproc("MyProcedure", (teradata.InOutParam("inputValue", "inoutVar1"), teradata.OutParam(), teradata.OutParam("outVar2", dataType="PERIOD")))
print(results.inoutVar1)
print(results.outVar1)

3.4 Transactions

UdaExec enables auto commit by default.   To disable auto commit and instead commit transactions manually, set autoCommit=False on the call to connect or in the data source’s external configuration.

Transactions can be manually committed or rolled back using the commit() and rollback() methods on the Connection object.  E.g.

import teradata
udaExec = teradata.UdaExec()
with udaExec.connect("${dataSourceName}", autoCommit=False) as session:
    session.execute("CREATE TABLE ${tableName} (${columns})")
    session.commit()

3.5 Data Types

To keep a consistent interface and implementation for both REST and ODBC, UdaExec gets all data values, with the exception of binary data (e.g. BYTE, VARBYTE, BLOB), in their string representation before converting them to their Python representation.

The interface that UdaExec uses to perform the conversion is called teradata.datatypes.DataTypeConverter with the default implementation being teradata.datatypes.DefaultDataTypeConverter.   If you would like to customize how data gets converted from strings to Python objects, you can specify a custom DataTypeConverter during connect.   E.g.

udaExec.connect("${dataSourceName}", dataTypeConverter=MyDataTypeConverter())

It is recommended to derive your custom DataTypeConverter from DefaultDataTypeConverter so that you can perform conversion for the data types you’re interested in while delegating to the default implementation for any of the remaining ones.

The table below specifies the data types that get converted by the DefaultDataTypeConverter.  Any data types not in the table below are returned as a Python Unicode string (e.g. VARCHAR, CLOB, UDT, ARRAY, etc.)

Data Type

Python Object

BYTE

bytearray

VARBYTE

bytearray

BYTEINT

decimal.Decimal

SMALLINT

decimal.Decimal

INTEGER

decimal.Decimal

BIGINT

decimal.Decimal

REAL, FLOAT, DOUBLE PRECISION

decimal.Decimal

DECIMAL, NUMERIC

decimal.Decimal

NUMBER

decimal.Decimal

DATE

datetime.date

TIME

datetime.time

TIME WITH TIME ZONE

datetime.time

TIMESTAMP

datetime.datetime

TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE

datetime.datetime

INTERVAL

teradata.datatypes.Interval

BLOB

bytearray

JSON

dict or list, result of json.loads()

PERIOD

teradata.datatypes.Period

3.6 Unicode

The Teradata Python Module supports Unicode by default but you must make sure your session character set is set to UTF8 or UTF16 to successfully submit or retrieve Unicode data.   If this is not the default, you can explicitly set your session character set by passing in “charset=UTF8” into the connect method or by specifying it in your data sources external configuration.

3.7 Ignoring Errors

Sometimes it is necessary to execute a SQL statement even though there is a chance it may fail.  For example, if your script depends on a table that may or may not already exist, the simple thing to do is to try to create the table and ignore the “table already exists” error.  UdaExec makes it easy to do this by allowing clients to specify error codes that can safely be ignored.   For example, the following execute statement will not raise an error even if the checkpoints table already exists.

session.execute("""CREATE TABLE ${dbname}.checkpoints (
    appName VARCHAR(1024) CHARACTER SET UNICODE, 
    checkpointName VARCHAR(1024) CHARACTER SET UNICODE)
    UNIQUE PRIMARY INDEX(appName)""",
    ignoreErrors=[3803])

If you want to ignore all errors regardless of the error code, you can include the “continueOnError=True” parameter to execute.  This will cause any errors to be caught and logged and not raised up to your application.

3.8 Password Protection

Teradata ODBC along with Teradata Wallet can be used to avoid storing passwords in clear text in external configuration files.   As UdaExec uses dollar signs to reference external configuration values, dollar signs used to reference Teradata Wallet keys must be escaped with an extra dollar sign.  E.g.

udaExec.connect("${dataSourceName}", password="$$tdwallet(password_$$(tdpid)")

3.9 Query Timeouts

The execute, executemany, and callproc methods all accept a queryTimeout parameter for specifying the number of seconds to wait for the query to return.   If the query does not complete within the specified timeout, it is aborted and an exception will be raised.   E.g.

session.execute("SELECT * FROM ${table}", queryTimeout=60)

3.10 External SQL Scripts

UdaExec can be used to execute SQL statements that are stored in files external to your Python script.  To execute the SQL statements in an external file, simply pass the execute method the location of the file to execute.  E.g.

session.execute(file="myqueries.sql")

A semi-colon is used as the default delimiter when specifying multiple SQL statements.   Any occurrence of a semi-colon outside of a SQL string literal or comments is treated as a delimiter.   When SQL scripts contain SQL stored procedures that contain semi-colons internal to the procedure, the delimiter should be change to something other than the default.  To use a different character sequence as the delimiter, the delimiter parameter can be used.  E.g.

session.execute(file="myqueries.sql", delimiter=";;")

UdaExec also has limited support for executing BTEQ scripts.   Any BTEQ commands starting with a “.” are simply ignored, while everything else is treated as a SQL statement and executed.   To execute a BTEQ script, pass in a fileType="bteq" parameter.  E.g.

session.execute(file="myqueries.bteq", fileType="bteq")

SQL statements in external files can reference external configuration values using the ${keyname} syntax.  Therefore, any use of “$” in an external SQL file must be escaped if it is not intended to reference an external configuration value.

Any parameters passed to execute will be passed as parameters to the SQL statements in the external file.   Execute will still return a cursor when executing a SQL script, the cursor will point to the results of the last SQL statement in the file.

Comments can be included in SQL files.  Multi-line comments start with "/*" and end with "*/".  Single line comments start with "--".   Comments are submitted to the database along with the individual SQL statements.

4.0 Reference

This section defines the full set of method parameters supported by the API.

4.1 UdaExec Parameters

UdaExec accepts the following list of parameters during initialization.   The column labeled “E” flags if a parameter can be specified in an external configuration file.

Name

Description

E

Default Value

appName

The name of our application

Y

None - Required field

version

The version of our application

Y

None - Required field

checkpointFile

The location of the checkpoint file.  Can be None to disable file-based checkpoints.

Y

${appName}.checkpoint

runNumberFile

The path of the file containing the previous runNumber.

Y

.runNumber

runNumber

A string that represents this particular execution of the python script.   Used in the log file name as well as included in the Session QueryBand.

Y

YYYYmmddHHMMSS-X

configureLogging

Flags if UdaExec will configure logging.  

Y

True

logDir

The directory that contains log files.

Y

"logs"

logFile

The log file name. 

Y

"${appName}.${runNumber}.log"

logLevel

The level that determines what log messages are logged (i.e. CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG, TRACE)

Y

"INFO"

logConsole

Flags if logs should be written to stdout in addition to the log file.

Y

True

logRetention

The number of days to retain log files.  Files in the log directory older than the specified number of days are deleted.

Y

90

systemConfigFile

The system wide configuration file(s).  Can be a single value or a list.  

N

"/etc/udaexec.ini"

userConfigFile

The user specific configuration file(s).  Can be a single value or a list.  

N

"~/udaexec.ini" or "%HOMEPATH%/udaexec.ini"

appConfigFile

The application specific configuration file (s).  Can be a single value or a list. 

N

"udaexec.ini"

configFiles

The full list of external configuration files.  Overrides any values in systemConfigFile, userConfigFile, appConfigFile.

N

None

configSection

The name of the application config section in external configuration files.

N

CONFIG

parseCmdLineArgs

Flags whether or not to include command line arguments as part of the external configuration variables.

N

True

gitPath

The path to the GIT executable to use to include GIT information in the session QueryBand.

Y

Defaults to system path

production

Flags if this app is a production application, applies this value to session QueryBand.

Y

False

odbcLibPath

The path to the ODBC library to load.

Y

Defaults to OS specific library path

dataTypeConverter

The DataTypeConverter implementation to use to convert data types from their string representation to python objects.

N

datatypes.DefaultDataTypeConverter()

4.2 Connect Parameters

The following table lists the parameters that the UdaExec.connect() method accepts.   With the exception of the “externalDSN” parameter, all the parameters below can be specified in the DEFAULT or named data source sections of external configuration files.   While the externalDSN parameter cannot be specified directly in an external configuration file, it can reference the name of an external configuration variable using ${keyname} syntax.   The “Type” column indicates if a parameter is specific to a connectivity option, if it is blank it applies to all types.

When using ODBC as the connection method, any parameters passed to the connect method or specified in an external configuration that are not listed below will be automatically be appened to the connect string passed to the ODBC driver.  For example, to reference a named data source defined in an odbc.ini file, you can simply call udaExec.connect(method="odbc", DSN="mydsn"). 

Name

Description

Type

Default Value

externalDSN

The name of the data source defined in external configuration files.

 

None - Optional

method

The type of connection to make.  Possible values are “rest” or “odbc”

 

None - Required field

dbType

The type of system being connected to.  The only supported option at the present release is “Teradata”

 

Teradata

system

The name of the system to connect.  For ODBC it’s the tdpid, for REST its the system alias configured in the REST service

 

None

username

The Database username to use to connect.

 

None

password

The Database password to use to connect.  

 

None

host

The host name of the server hosting the REST service.

REST

None

port

The port number of REST Service

REST

Defaults to 1080 for http and 1443 for https

protocol

The protocol to use for REST connections (i.e. http or https).  When using https,

REST

http

webContext

The web context of the REST service

REST

/tdrest

charset

The session character set (e.g. UTF8, UTF16, etc.)

 

None

database

The default database name to apply to the session

  None

autoCommit

Enables or disables auto commit mode.  When auto commit mode is disabled, transactions must be committed manually.

 

True

transactionMode

The transaction mode to use i.e. “Teradata” or “ANSI”

 

Teradata

queryBands

A map (dict) of query band key/value pairs to include the session’s QueryBand.

 

None

dataTypeConverter

The DataTypeConverter implementation to use to convert data types from their string representation to python objects.

 

datatypes.DefaultDataTypeConverter()

sslContext

The ssl.SSLContext to use to establish SSL connections.

REST

None

verifyCerts

Flags if REST SSL certificate should be verified, ignored if sslContext is not None.

REST

True

**kwargs

A variable number of name/value pairs to append to the ConnectString passed to SQLDriverConnect.  For the full list of options supported by the Teradata ODBC driver, see the ODBC Driver for Teradata User Guide.

ODBC

None

4.3 Execute Parameters

The following table lists the parameters that the execute method accepts.

Name

Description

Default Value

query

The query to execute.

None, required if file is None

params

The list or tuple containing the parameters to pass in to replace question mark placeholders.

None

file

The path of an external script to execute.

None

fileType

The type of file to execute if different than a standard delimited SQL script (i.e. bteq)

None

delimiter

The delimiter character to use for  SQL scripts.

;

runAlways

When True, the query or script will be executed regardless if the previous checkpoint has been reached.

False

continueOnError

When True, all errors will be caught and logged but not raised up to the application.

False

ignoreErrors

The list or sequence of error codes to ignore.  

None

queryTimeout

The number of seconds to wait for a response before aborting the query and returning.

0 - indicates wait indefinitely

logParamCharLimit

The maximum number of characters to log per query parameter.  When a parameter exceeds the limit it is truncated in the logs and an ellipsis ("...") is appended.   

80 characters per parameter
logParamFrequency

The amount of parameter sets to log when executemany is invoked.  Setting this value to X means that every Xth parameter set will be logged in addition to the first and last parameter set.   When this value is set to zero, no parameters are logged.

 1 - all parameters sets are logged.

 

Discussion
ericscheie 68 comments Joined 11/08
26 Jul 2016

@eo186005 - Can you e-mail me the log file with DEBUG enabled?   Also, what OS are you running on, and what session character set is being used?   If you change the session character set does it make any difference?

@dn186005 - The module displays the configuration file locations it tries to load, please compare those locations with the actual location and make sure they match.   You also may need to make sure the user running the python script has permissions to read that file.

eo186005 6 comments Joined 08/14
27 Jul 2016

Hi Eric,

 

>> Can you e-mail me the log file with DEBUG enabled?   

>> Also, what OS are you running on, and 

>> what session character set is being used?   

>> If you change the session character set does it make any difference?

 

OS is Windows XP

I was using UTF8, which failed.

At your suggestion, I changed to ASCII which succeeded.

I've emailed the logs to you as requested.
 

For the sake of other readers, I've uploaded the logs, with DEBUG enabled, for both success & failure, as well as the SQL for the large view, here:

http://dropcanvas.com/fak2l

 

Thanks

Eoghan

eo186005 6 comments Joined 08/14
03 Aug 2016

Just to close out on this issue:
After confirmation from Eric that he was unable to reproduce this behaviour in any environment, I tried an upgrade from the Teradata ODBC driver from 14.00.00.05 to 14.10.00.07 .  This resolved the issue. Thanks to you Eric for the support - much appreciated.

asimshah 1 comment Joined 02/11
18 Aug 2016

Hi ericscheie,

 

We are having issues executing a Teradata Macro from Python.

The Macro we are trying to execute does a delete from a table, inserts into a table and then runs a recursive query. We need the output from the recursive query in python.

However we believe our session end as soon as the first delete statement is executed, so I wanted to know if this is a limitation of the python module or is it something that we are doing incorrectly in our code.
 

I have pasted the python code below. Any help re this is much appreciated.

 

import teradata as td

 

import os

 

udaExec = td.UdaExec(odbcLibPath = '/path/to/my/libodbc.so')

 

with udaExec.connect('${dataSourceName}') as session:

 

data = session.execute("EXEC TABLENAME.MACRONAME(Param1,Param2)”)

 

Thanks,

Asim

 

ZackHowe 1 comment Joined 07/06
19 Aug 2016

In case anyone is having the same problems I was trying to get the python module working on a VMWare instance:
http://forums.teradata.com/forum/teradata-database-on-vmware/setting-up-teradata-python-module-on-vmware-image
 

Siva2003 2 comments Joined 03/14
31 Aug 2016

Hi,
I want to connect to teradata and execute a sql from  flat file and edirect the output of the file to another sql file.
Iam able to connect to teradata and execute a sql from file but instead of print the output to a monitor i want to print to a file.
Can some one tell me how to do it? below is the code .
 

#!/usr/bin/python

import teradata

udaExec = teradata.UdaExec (appName="HelloWorld", version="1.0",
logConsole=False)

session = udaExec.connect(method="odbc", system="tdprod",
username="instclone", password="xxxxxxxxx");

for row in session.execute(file="file.sql", delimiter=";"):
print(row)

 
 

ericscheie 68 comments Joined 11/08
31 Aug 2016

@Radsubra1 -  Here is a simple example that writes the string representation of the row to a file named "result.txt".

with open ('result.txt', 'w') as file:
   for row in session.execute(file="file.sql"):
       file.write(str(row))
       file.write('\n')
Siva2003 2 comments Joined 03/14
01 Sep 2016

@ericscheie .Thanks a lot . It is working just as expected.

DiEgoR 10 comments Joined 08/06
07 Sep 2016

Wouldn't it be a good idea to add to the tutorial the recepy for setting the dataframe names to the sql resultset column names?


gabnash 2 comments Joined 10/15
16 Oct 2015
	
cols = []
for row in mq_cursor.description:
    cols.append(row[0])
     
df.columns = cols

Thanks @ericscheie. I replaced the last line of code with the above and now it works

 

input output putput

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